Sessions are an integral part of a web framework. This is how we "remember" things for our users. Remastered provides a framework to handle sessions in multiple ways:

  • Cookie-based sessions
  • TODO
  • Do-it-yourself

The remastered package exports a createSessionStore function, which takes a session storage as its parameter and an optional headerName for overriding the header which will be passed to the storage.

We recommend putting the session store creation in a single file, like app/session.ts, so you could reference it anytime and not pass around secrets.

Session Store API

The session store API feels a lot like a native Map, but with some additions. Each session storage can allow storing different values (hence the generic Value in SessionStore<Value>), but all of the storages provided by Remastered support JSON-serializable formats.

has(key: string): boolean

Checks whether a key exists in the session

get(key: string): Value

Retrives the value of key from the session

unset(key: string): void

Deletes a key from the session

set(key: string, value: Value): void

Sets a persistent value linked as key in the session

flash(key: string, value: Value): void

Sets a temporary value linked as key in the session. This is mostly handy in situations like messages or notifications into a redirect:

Note! you must commit the session when you read flash sessions in order for them to be removed from the session. This is different from frameworks like Ruby on Rails, which do that automatically for you.

commit(): Promise<string>

Persists the session into the storage of choice and returns a Set-Cookie header to set in the response

Session Storages

A session can be stored anywhere. Some apps are using cookies to persist sessions, while some apps are using their database or a Redis instance. There are different tradeoffs for every decisions. Remastered is built in a way that abstracts the underlying mechanism, so you can replace it anytime.

Cookie-based sessions

Cookie-based session allows you to serialize the session into an encrypted cookie. There are advantages for this method, as it does not require any persistent storage services like databases or caches like Redis — and works great in production.

The main disadvantage is that cookies are usually maxed-out at 4kb, which means your session storage has a low budget.

You can set up a cookie session by using the CookieSessionStorage:

// app/sessions.ts
import { createCookieSessionStorage, getSessionStore } from "remastered";

export const getSession = getSessionStore(
    cookie: {
      name: "session-cookie-name",
      secret: "a secret to encrypt the session contents",

Implementing session storages

Note: when implementing session storages, please follow the tips below for better security for your users.

We haven't implemented all the sessions possible. Let's say you want to implement a Redis session or a PostgreSQL session or whatever you want -- the API is very clear and well-typed. All you need is to implement a SessionStorage<Value, Metadata>.

The SessionStorage<Value, Metadata> is an interface that declares how to read and write sessions. In order to make it as type-safe as possible, it is a generic type. Its generics are:

  • Value is the allowed value types for this storage. Not all storages will support any kind of data store.
    • When using MemorySessionStorage, that stores everything in-memory, anything can be stored. You can store any kind of objects. This is why MemorySessionStorage has a Value of unknown.
    • When using CookieSessionStorage, that stores everything as a JSON string in the cookie header, you can only store JSON-serializable objects. This is why CookieSessionStorage has a Value of Serializable, which is a type that contains all the available JSON types.
  • Metadata is a value that will be passed from the reading phase (fromHeader, more on this later) into the committing phase (toHeader). This is optional and will be unknown if not given. This is especially useful for storing session IDs or other data that should not be manipulated by the session itself in the application code, but helps updating and saving it to the storage layer later on.

Your storage will be managing a StoredSession<Value>, an object that contains a content: Map<string, Value> of data that can be consumed and altered by the application code by using set, get, unset, and flash. It also contains a flashedKeys: Set<string> which are the keys that needs to be removed after reading them in the next session commit.

In order to finally implement your session storage, you will need to provide an object with the following methods:

The reading phase: fromHeader(header?: string): Promise<[StoredSession<Value>, Metadata]>

The fromHeader function takes an optional header. A header can be a Cookie header or an Authorization header. It will be later defined by createSessionStore.

Your storage should take the optional header, and return a tuple of a StoredSession<Value> and Metadata. StoredSession<Value>.

The commit phase: toHeader(content: StoredSession<Value>, metadata: Metadata): Promise<string>

The toHeader function takes a StoredSession<Value> and a Metadata and stores it to the device, returning a string representation for the session. It can be a session ID, a JWT, or an entire cookie header. It's up to the storage implementation to decide.

Using Remastered helpers

withEncryptedCookies({ cookie, storage })

The withEncryptedCookies function is a helper function that handles cookie parsing and encryption for you. This is how both MemorySessionStorage and CookieSessionStorage are implemented. It basically wraps your storage with a thin layer of cookie serialization/encryption into a plaintext string, and deserialization/decryption from the cookie header content.

Tips for implementing session storages

  1. Encrypt or cryptographically sign whatever you pass to the user. You don't want the users to alter the session ID and be able to read another user's details
  2. If not encrypted, use some randomness and timestamps for generating session IDs
  3. Expire your sessions. Don't let them live forever. The longer they live — the higher the risk of stealing them.

This page was generated with Remastered v0.1.34 at

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